Geography of Assam

Assam is one of the 8 states of Northeast India. An important geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains 3 of 6 physiographic divisions of India – the Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), the Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain), and the Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam, the climate here is mostly cold, and it receives a lot of rainfall. Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam, is an antecedent river fairly older than the Himalayas.

With the tropical monsoon climate, the temperature in Guwahati, the capital city of Assam during summer ranges from 950 – 100°F or 350 – 38°C, and during winter the temperature ranges from 430 – 46°F or 60 – 8°C. The climate and temperature is characterized by particularly heavy monsoon downpours, reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, generally frequent during the afternoons. Spring (March-April) and autumn (September-October) are usually pleasant with really moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world with grasslands, forests, tropical rainforests, bamboo orchards and multiple wetland ecosystems. Many of these are protected and reserved areas. Assam is also rich in orchid species. The recently set up Kaziranga Orchid and Biodiversity Park has more than 500 of the estimated 1314 orchid species found in India. This state is also a refuge for endangered and threatened species including the Bengal tiger, pygmy hog, white-rumped vulture, golden languor, brahminy river turtle, Asian forest tortoise, Assam roofed turtle among many others.

Assam’s two wildlife sanctuaries—Kaziranga National Park and Manas Wildlife Sanctuary—are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, with Kaziranga National Park providing the only refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros. This beautiful state in Northeast also has coal, natural gas, limestone, petroleum and other minerals like clay, feldspar, and magnetic quartzite.

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